sábado, 25 de mayo de 2013

Comando básicos en Backtrack (y en la mayoría de los Linux)

Siempres es útil tener un listado rápido de comandos válidos en el sistema operativo que utilicemos. En este caaso Sunny Kumar ha recoletado los comandos de consola de Backtrack 5 R3. Por supuesto la mayoría de ellos también estan disponibles en otras distribuciones, sobre todo si las mismas son de la rama Debian.

  • ac - Print statistics about the time they have been connected users.
  • adduser - See useradd.
  • alias - Create shortcuts to commands, list current aliases.
  • apt-get - Tool actualizacón / remote installation packages in debian based systems.
  • arp - Lets get / manipulate the list of MAC / IP addresses that the system sees.
  • arping - Sends ARP REQUEST to other computers on the network.
  • arptables - Firewall functions similar to control iptables but arp protocol traffic.
  • at - Work program, commands, scripts for later execution.
  • atq - List scheduled jobs pending execution by the at command.
  • awk - Analysis and processing patterns in files and listings.
  • basename - Delete the path name of a file.
  • bc - Calculator and mathematical language, very powerful.
  • biosdecode - BIOS information.
  • blkid - Displays attributes of block devices (disks, usb, etc..) Such as LABEL and UUID, among others.
  • bzcat - Uncompress files using bzip2 compressed or packaged.
  • bzip2 - Compressor / decompressor files.
  • bzmore - View the archive contents or packaged using bzip2.
  • lime - Displays a calendar.
  • cat - Displays the contents of files and concatenates files.
  • cd - Change directory.
  • cfdisk - Disk partitioning tool, mainly used on Debian systems.
  • chage - Change the information (expiration, revocation, etc.) of a user's password.
  • chattr - Change extended attributes of files and directories
  • chfn - Change the information used in finger.
  • chgrp - Changes the group of a file (s) or folder (s).
  • chkconfig - Controls / query how services are running or not on startup.
  • chmod - Change the permissions of a file (s) or folder (s).
  • chown - Changes the owner of a file (s) or folder (s).
  • chpasswd - Upgrade passwords or passwords in batch mode. Passwords can update user groups.
  • chroot - Execute commands in a restricted shell root to a directory and its subdirectories.
  • chsh - Change your default shell or login shell.
  • cleanlinks - Cleans symlinks unrelated and also removes empty directories.
  • clear - Clean the terminal.
  • cmp - Compares two files byte by byte.
  • convertquota - Converts from old formats quota.group quota.user and new formats and aquota.group aquota.user.
  • cpio - Copy, create, and extract compressed files in different formats and between teams or locally.
  • crontab - Manage files and cron for root users.
  • curl - Allows you to download or transfer url's.
  • cut - Removes sections (columns mainly) of each line of a file or files.
  • date - Displays / sets the date and time.
  • dc - Interactive Calculator.
  • dd - Convert and copy files and file systems.
  • ddate - Displays the date in calendar format jarring.
  • df - Displays space usage of hard drives or partitions.
  • diff - Search and show differences between files.
  • dig - Props for querying DNS servers.
  • dircolors - Color setup for ls.
  • dirs - Allows you to display, manipulate the list of directories used in the stack. (See popd and pushd)
  • dmesg - Displays messages system startup (boot).
  • dmidecode - List of computer hardware BIOS directly. (Also: lshw)
  • dos2unix - Converts files from MS-DOS to Unix format / Linux.
  • du - Displays space usage of files and directories.
  • dump - Allows creation of backups for the file systems ext2 and ext3.
  • ECHO - Prints a line of text, variables, or content to a file.
  • edquota - Manages disk quota control user and group.
  • egrep - It's like the 'grep-E', to use regular expressions.
  • eject - Unmount and eject removable media such as CD-ROMs.
  • env - Run a program in a modified environment.
  • ethtool - Allows you to display or change values ​​of a network card.
  • exit - Exits the current shell or terminal.
  • expect - Create sequences and dialogues with other interactive sessions programmed commands or scripts.
  • export - Exports the value of a variable.
  • exportfs - Maintains a list of file systems NFS type which have been exported.
  • expr - Mathematical expression evaluator.
  • factor - Find the primes of a given number.
  • fc - List, edit and reejecuta previously executed commands.
  • fdisk - Disk partitioning tool, common to almost all distros.
  • fgrep - It's like 'grep-F' to use regular expressions in file searches and listings.
  • file - Determines the file type.
  • find - File search, multiple search options.
  • findfs - Find a filesystem by UUID or LABEL (label).
  • findsmb - List information about computers that respond to SMB packets. List a Windows network. (Part Samba)
  • finger - Displays information about the system users.
  • Fortune - Prints a random adage.
  • fping - Lets send ICMP packets (pings) to multiple computers on a network and determine if they are alive or not.
  • free - Shows the used and free space of RAM and Swap.
  • fsck - Tool to verify / repair file systems.
  • fuser - Identify processes using files or connections (sockets).
  • gawk - Analysis and processing patterns in files and listings. (Gnu version)
  • gcc - C compiler and GNU C + +.
  • gedit - GNOME text editor.
  • gpasswd - Enables management of the file / etc / group
  • gpg - Tool generation encryption and security certificates (opengpg).
  • grep - Look for patterns of strings within files.
  • groupadd - Create a new group in the system.
  • groupdel - Deletes a group in the system.
  • groupmod - Modifies a group on the system.
  • groups - Prints the groups to which a user belongs.
  • gzip - Compresses / expands files.
  • halt - Turn off the computer.
  • hdparm - Sets and displays features on the hard drives.
  • head - Displays the first lines of a file.
  • help - Help on bash internal commands.
  • history - Displays the user's command history.
  • host - Utility consulting DNS server host.
  • hostname - Displays the computer name.
  • htpasswd - Manage files of user / password for basic authentication of Apache.
  • hwclock - Displays / Sets the date / time changes or hardware. (Date / Time System to date)
  • id - Displays the UID (User ID) and GID (Group ID) of the user
  • ifconfig - Displays / Configures the system's network interfaces.
  • ifstat - Small utility that allows to observe statistics of network interfaces in real time.
  • init - Initialization control ejecucción level.
  • insmod - Modules inserted in the kernel.
  • ipcalc - Perform simple calculations on IP addresses.
  • ipcount - Identifying ranges of network, IP's calculation.
  • iptab - Displays an IP address table prefix according to CIDR
  • iptables - Firewall configuration tool for Linux.
  • iptraf - Network traffic analyzer in text mode.
  • iwconfig - Set up a wireless network card.
  • iwlist - Gets details of a wireless card.
  • jobs - Displays user jobs in suspension or background.
  • kate - KDE Text Editor.
  • kill - Terminates processes, more correctly sends signals to processes.
  • killall - End processes with the same name or group.
  • last - Displays information from past users logged.
  • lastb - Displays information from the previous failed attempts to login.
  • less - Displays the contents of an archive, searchable and movement back and forth.
  • ln - Create links (shortcuts) soft and hard files and directories.
  • locale - Specific information about the local environment variables.
  • locate - Indexes and searches files. Slocate safer to use.
  • losetup - Defines and controls devices such as 'loop'.
  • lpq - Sample documents for printing in the print queue.
  • lpr - Add a document to the print queue.
  • ls - List files and directories.
  • lshw - List of computer hardware BIOS directly. (Also: dmidecode)
  • lsmod - Displays the status of the modules in the kernel.
  • lsof - Displays open files in ejecucción program, or a user, process, etc.
  • lspci - List PCI devices in the system.
  • lsusb - List system usb devices.
  • mail - Send and receive email.
  • man - Command displays the manual indicated.
  • mc - Handler archvivos with mouse support in text mode, not every distro I have.
  • mcedit - Mc text editor.
  • md5sum - Check (and creates) files with md5 signature certification.
  • mkdir - Create directories.
  • mkfs - Build a Linux file system.
  • mkpasswd - Password generator. (Software Package 'expect').
  • modinfo - Displays information about kernel modules.
  • modprobe - Tool to add / remove kernel modules.
  • more - Pager similar to but less funcioanal less as it comes forward and retocede.
  • mount - Monta storage partitions enabled devices listed.
  • mtools - Set of utilities to access DOS disks from Linux.
  • mv - Moves files and directories.
  • netstat - Network Utility showing connections, routing tables, interface statistics, etc..
  • nice - Run a program with a priority other than normal ejecucción.
  • nohup - Runs a program immune to hangups and without access to a terminal.
  • openssl - Control, management, security certificate generation.
  • partprobe - Tells the operating system to the changes mentioned in / etc / fstab
  • passwd - Changes the specified user's password.
  • ping - Send an ECHO_REQUEST (echo request) to a computer on the network.
  • pkill - Send signals to processes based on their attributes.
  • popd - Removes entries (directories used) from the list of directories used in the stack. (See dirs and pushd)
  • pr - Format or convert text files for printing.
  • ps - Displays system processes or user or both.
  • pstree - Displays processes as a tree.
  • pushd - Adds entries (directories used) in the directory list (stack or stack). (See dirs and popd)
  • pwck - Check the integrity of the file / etc / passwd
  • pwconv - Add shadow protection or sets the file / etc / passwd.
  • quota - You can see the use of user fees.
  • quotacheck - Create, verify, manage disk quota systems
  • quotaoff - Deactivates disk quotas.
  • quotaon - Active control disk quotas for users and groups.
  • rdesktop - Open graphics terminals has? Ia Windows computers.
  • reboot - Restart the computer.
  • renice - Changes the priority of a process or program ejecucción.
  • repquota - Report use of disk quotas.
  • resolveip - Solve the ip or host domain indicated.
  • rev - Reverses the lines of a file.
  • rm - Deletes or removes files.
  • route - Displays / changes the IP routing table.
  • rpm - Program installation / update / removing packages, redhat based distros.
  • runlevel - Displays the current run level and previous system.
  • scp - Copy files between computers, part of the package openssh (encrypted communication protocol).
  • screen - Virtual terminal manager.
  • thirst - Editor online file filters and transforms.
  • service - Run / stop services manually.
  • set - Displays or sets the environment variables for the user actuual.
  • sha1sum - Check (and creates) files sha1 signature certification.
  • shopt - Enables or disables variables shell optional behavior.
  • shred - Delete files securely and unrecoverable.
  • shutdown - Turn off or restart your computer.
  • sort - Sort lines of files and playlists
  • ss - Props like netstat but basic socket set fast listings.
  • ssh - Secure remote login program, openssh package program (encrypted communication protocol).
  • startx - Log X.
  • his - Change the current user indicated.
  • sudo - Allows user runs indicate that root commands.
  • sync - Forza memory blocks to disk, update the super block.
  • tac - As cat shows and / or concatenated files in reverse.
  • tail - Displays the end of a file.
  • tailf - Synonym tail-f command, lets you see in real time the end of a file, ie as you type, useful for monitoring logs.
  • tar - Tool packer / compressor files.
  • testparm - Check samba smb.conf file for errors or corrections.
  • time - Returns the time that you ran the command or program indicated.
  • top - Displays system processes interactively and continuously.
  • touch - Create empty files, change access dates and / or modification of files.
  • tput - Change values ​​or terminal capabilities, based on terminfo.
  • traceroute - Prints the route network packets to the destination.
  • tty - Print the name of the terminal on which this.
  • tzselect - Set an area or zone.
  • umask - Set permissions mask when creating directories and files.
  • umount - Unmount file systems.
  • unalias - Removes alias command, created with the alias command.
  • uname - Displays system information.
  • uniq - Omits or reports on repeated lines in a file or listing.
  • units - Converter units from one system to another, supports dozens of metrics.
  • up2date - Upgrade Tool / remote installation package (used in redhat, centos).
  • uptime - Shows how long has turned on the computer.
  • urpme - Urpmi package program to uninstall or remove packages.
  • urpmi - Upgrade Tool / remote installation packages, rpm based distros (used in mandriva).
  • useradd - Add users.
  • userdel - Removes users.
  • usermod - Modifies user information.
  • users - Displays the user names of all users currently connected to the system.
  • vi - Display visual editor, text editor, you find in all Linux distros.
  • vim - Same as vi but improved.
  • visudo - Editor for the configuration file / etc / sudoers sudo.
  • vmstat - Provides information on virtual memory.
  • w - Shows who is connected to the system and you are doing.
  • wall - Send a message to all terminals.
  • warnquota - Configure / etc / warnquota.conf to complement messages for disk quotas.
  • wc - Account words, lines, characters from a file or listing.
  • wget - File Downloader from the Internet and not interactive.
  • whatis - Short description, in a line of a command or program.
  • whereis - Locate the binary, source and / or libraries, and documentation of a comado.
  • Which - Shows the full path of a command.
  • who - Shows who is connected to the system.
  • whoami - Displays the current user.
  • xhost - Access control for X sessions
  • xkill - Mata or ends to an X client, ie a graphics program.
  • yes - Prints a string repeatedly until terminated or killed the command.
  • yum - Upgrade Tool / remote installation packages, rpm based distros (used in fedora, redhat and derivatives).
  • zcat - Unzip / sample files compressed with gunzip (identical to gunzip-c)
  • zenity - Displays various types of dialogues in X from a terminal.
  • zless - Displays the contents of compressed files
  • zmore - Displays the contents of compressed files

Comando básicos en Backtrack (y en la mayoría de los Linux)

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